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Physical Metallurgy by Vijendra Singh: A Comprehensive Book for Metallurgical Engineering Students
Physical metallurgy is a branch of materials science that deals with the physical properties, structure, behavior, processing, and performance of metals and alloys. It is an essential subject for metallurgical engineering students, as it helps them to understand the fundamentals and applications of metals and alloys in various industries.
physical metallurgy by vijendra singh pdf free download
One of the best books on physical metallurgy is Physical Metallurgy by Vijendra Singh. This book explains the basic principles of physical metallurgy, including the practical applications, in a clear and concise manner. The book covers a wide range of topics, such as atomic structure and bonding, crystal structure and defects, phase diagrams, solidification, diffusion, mechanical properties and testing, phase transformations and heat treatment, alloy systems, powder metallurgy, and surface engineering. The book also features numerous examples, problems, diagrams, tables, charts, and references to help the readers to grasp the concepts easily.
If you are looking for a comprehensive and updated book on physical metallurgy, you should definitely check out Physical Metallurgy by Vijendra Singh. You can buy the book from online or offline stores, or you can download the pdf version for free from various websites. In this article, we will give you an overview of the book and its contents, and also provide you with some links to download the pdf version for free.
Physical Metallurgy: Basic Principles and Applications
The first part of the book covers the basic principles and applications of physical metallurgy. It introduces the concepts of atomic structure and bonding, crystal structure and defects, phase diagrams, solidification, and diffusion. These concepts are fundamental to understand the structure and properties of metals and alloys.
Atomic Structure and Bonding
This chapter explains how atoms are arranged and interact in metals and alloys. It covers the topics such as atomic models, atomic number and mass number, isotopes, electronic configuration, periodic table, chemical bonding, metallic bonding, ionic bonding, covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals bonding, hybridization, molecular orbital theory, band theory of solids, free electron theory of metals, Fermi energy level, density of states, electrical conductivity of metals, thermal conductivity of metals.
Crystal Structure and Defects
This chapter explains how crystals are formed and what are the imperfections that affect their properties. It covers the topics such as crystalline and amorphous solids, unit cell and lattice parameters, crystal systems, Bravais lattices, Miller indices, crystal directions and planes, interplanar spacing, crystallographic calculations, coordination number and atomic packing factor, close-packed structures, body-centered cubic structure, face-centered cubic structure, hexagonal close-packed structure, polymorphism and allotropy, crystal defects, point defects, line defects, planar defects, volume defects, Schottky defect, Frenkel defect, vacancy defect, interstitial defect, substitutional defect, impurity defect, edge dislocation, screw dislocation, mixed dislocation, Burgers vector, dislocation density, stacking fault, twin boundary, grain boundary.
This chapter explains how to represent the equilibrium states of different phases in a metal or alloy system. It covers the topics such as phases and phase diagrams, components and degrees of freedom, Gibbs phase rule, one-component phase diagrams (water system), binary phase diagrams (isomorphous system), lever rule, tie line or isotherm method, cooling curves (equilibrium cooling and non-equilibrium cooling), eutectic system (lead-tin system), peritectic system (iron-carbon system), eutectoid system (iron-carbon system), peritectoid system (copper-zinc system), monotectic system (lead-bismuth system), syntectic system (aluminum-silicon system), intermediate phases or compounds (intermetallic compounds), solid solutions (substitutional solid solution and interstitial solid solution), Hume-Rothery rules for solid solubility (size factor rule, valency rule, crystal structure rule, chemical affinity rule), phase diagrams with intermediate phases or compounds (copper-silver system), ternary phase diagrams (iron-carbon-silicon system).
This chapter explains how metals and alloys transform from liquid to solid state and what are the factors that influence their microstructure. It covers the topics such as nucleation (homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation), nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus, growth (planar growth interface and dendritic growth interface), solidification time (Chvorinov's rule), solidification structures (equiaxed grains and columnar grains), grain size (grain size number and grain size equation), factors affecting grain size (cooling rate and inoculation), segregation (macro-segregation and micro-segregation), ```html and constitutional supercooling), eutectic solidification (lamellar structure and rod structure), eutectoid transformation (pearlite structure and bainite structure), dendrite morphology (primary dendrite arm spacing and secondary dendrite arm spacing), factors affecting dendrite morphology (cooling rate and solute concentration), solidification defects (porosity and hot tearing).
This chapter explains how atoms move in solids and what are the mechanisms and factors that affect diffusion. It covers the topics such as diffusion and its importance, Fick's laws of diffusion (Fick's first law and Fick's second law), steady-state diffusion and non-steady-state diffusion, diffusion coefficient or diffusivity, factors affecting diffusion coefficient (temperature and concentration gradient), Arrhenius equation and activation energy for diffusion, mechanisms of diffusion (vacancy diffusion and interstitial diffusion), types of diffusion (volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion), Kirkendall effect and marker movement, diffusion in multiphase systems (interdiffusion or impurity diffusion and self-diffusion), diffusion couple and concentration profile, applications of diffusion (case hardening and doping of semiconductors).
Physical Metallurgy: Mechanical Properties and Testing
The second part of the book covers the mechanical properties and testing of metals and alloys. It introduces the concepts of elasticity and plasticity, strengthening mechanisms, fracture, fatigue, creep, and testing methods. These concepts are essential to understand the behavior and performance of metals and alloys under various loading conditions.
Elasticity and Plasticity
This chapter explains how metals and alloys deform under stress and what are the concepts of elastic and plastic behavior. It covers the topics such as stress and strain, types of stress (normal stress and shear stress), types of strain (normal strain and shear strain), Hooke's law and modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, bulk modulus or modulus of compression, elastic constants and their relations, elastic limit and proportional limit, yield strength and yield point phenomenon, plastic deformation and slip, critical resolved shear stress, slip systems and slip planes, Schmid's law and Schmid factor, strain hardening or work hardening, ultimate tensile strength or maximum load, fracture strength or breaking load, ductility and brittleness, percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area.
This chapter explains how to increase the strength of metals and alloys by manipulating their microstructure or applying external treatments. It covers the topics such as strengthening by grain size reduction (Hall-Petch equation and grain refinement methods), strengthening by solid solution (substitutional solid solution strengthening and interstitial solid solution strengthening), strengthening by strain hardening (cold working and recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth), strengthening by precipitation hardening or age hardening (solution treatment and aging treatment), strengthening by dispersion hardening or particle hardening (dispersion strengthening mechanism and dispersion strengthening methods), strengthening by fiber reinforcement or composite hardening (fiber reinforced metal matrix composites and fiber reinforcement mechanism).
This chapter explains how metals and alloys fail under stress and what are the modes and mechanisms of fracture. It covers the topics such as fracture modes (ductile fracture and brittle fracture), fracture features (cup-and-cone fracture and cleavage fracture), fracture mechanics (stress concentration factor and notch sensitivity factor), fracture toughness (plane strain fracture toughness and plane stress fracture toughness), Griffith theory of brittle fracture (Griffith criterion and Griffith crack), energy release rate or strain energy release rate, Irwin modification of Griffith theory (stress intensity factor and fracture toughness criterion), modes of crack opening (mode I, mode II, and mode III), crack tip plastic zone size, factors affecting fracture toughness (temperature and loading rate), fracture testing methods (Charpy impact test and Izod impact test).
This chapter explains how metals and alloys degrade under cyclic loading and what are the factors that influence fatigue life. It covers the topics such as fatigue and its importance, ```html and fatigue striations), stages of fatigue failure (crack initiation and crack propagation), fatigue testing methods (rotating bending test and axial loading test), S-N curve or Wohler curve (endurance limit and fatigue limit), factors affecting fatigue life (mean stress and stress ratio), modified Goodman diagram and Soderberg diagram, fatigue life estimation methods (stress-life method or S-N method and strain-life method or e-N method), low cycle fatigue and high cycle fatigue, fatigue crack growth rate and Paris law, factors affecting fatigue crack growth rate (stress intensity factor range and threshold stress intensity factor range), methods of improving fatigue life (shot peening and surface hardening).
This chapter explains how metals and alloys deform under high temperature and constant stress and what are the factors that affect creep rate. It covers the topics such as creep and its importance, creep curve or strain-time curve (primary creep and secondary creep and tertiary creep), creep testing methods (constant load test and constant stress test), creep rate and steady-state creep rate, creep mechanisms (diffusion creep and dislocation creep), Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep, creep parameters (activation energy for creep and stress exponent for creep), creep rupture and Larson-Miller parameter, creep fracture features (intergranular fracture and transgranular fracture), methods of improving creep resistance (grain size control and precipitation strengthening).
This chapter explains how to measure the mechanical properties of metals and alloys using standard tests such as tensile, hardness, impact, fatigue, creep, etc. It covers the topics such as tensile test (engineering stress-strain curve and true stress-strain curve), hardness test (Brinell hardness test and Rockwell hardness test and Vickers hardness test), impact test (Charpy impact test and Izod impact test), fatigue test (rotating bending test and axial loading test), creep test (constant load test and constant stress test), non-destructive testing methods (ultrasonic testing and radiographic testing and magnetic particle testing).
Physical Metallurgy: Phase Transformations and Heat Treatment
The third part of the book covers the phase transformations and heat treatment of metals and alloys. It introduces the concepts of phase transformations, kinetics of phase transformations, heat treatment, and types of heat treatment. These concepts are important to understand how to alter the microstructure and properties of metals and alloys by applying controlled heating and cooling cycles.
```html and irreversible phase transformations), order-disorder transformations (ordered phases and degree of order), martensitic transformations (martensite structure and martensite formation), diffusional transformations (nucleation and growth theory and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation), massive transformations (massive structure and massive formation), polymorphic transformations (allotropic transformations and reconstructive transformations), precipitation transformations (precipitation nucleation and precipitation growth).
Kinetics of Phase Transformations
This chapter explains how fast do phase transformations occur and what are the factors that affect their rates. It covers the topics such as driving force and activation energy for phase transformations, rate of nucleation and rate of growth, nucleation rate and growth rate curves, overall transformation rate and Avrami exponent, time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams or isothermal transformation diagrams (pearlite transformation and bainite transformation), continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams or continuous cooling curves (pearlite transformation and bainite transformation), factors affecting TTT and CCT diagrams (alloying elements and prior austenite grain size).
This chapter explains how to alter the microstructure and properties of metals and alloys by applying controlled heating and cooling cycles. It covers the topics such as purposes of heat treatment, stages of heat treatment (heating and soaking and cooling), furnaces and heating methods (gas-fired furnace and electric furnace and induction heating), cooling media and cooling methods (air cooling and water cooling and oil cooling and quenching), heat treatment defects (distortion and cracking and decarburization).
Types of Heat Treatment
This chapter explains what are the common heat treatment processes such as annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, etc. and what are their effects on metals and alloys. It covers the topics such as annealing (full annealing and process annealing and spheroidizing annealing), normalizing (normalizing temperature and normalizing microstructure), quenching (quenching temperature and quenching microstructure), tempering (tempering temperature and tempering microstructure), austempering (austempering temperature and austempering microstructure), martempering (martempering temperature and martempering microstructure), ```html and nitriding and carbonitriding and cyaniding).
Physical Metallurgy: Special Topics
The fourth part of the book covers some special topics in physical metallurgy, such as alloy systems, powder metallurgy, and surface engineering. These topics are important to understand the characteristics and applications of some specific types of metals and alloys.
This chapter explains what are the main types of alloy systems such as ferrous, non-ferrous, intermetallics, etc. and what are their characteristics and applications. It covers the topics such as ferrous alloys (plain carbon steels and alloy steels and stainless steels and cast irons), non-ferrous alloys (aluminum alloys and copper alloys and magnesium alloys and titanium alloys), intermetallic compounds (types of intermetallic compounds and properties of intermetallic compounds and applications of intermetallic compounds), shape memory alloys (types of shape memory alloys and properties of shape memory alloys and applications of shape memory alloys), amorphous alloys or metallic glasses (types of amorphous alloys and properties of amorphous alloys and applications of amorphous alloys).
This chapter explains what is powder metallurgy and how to produce metal powders, compact them, sinter them, and shape them into desired products. It covers the topics such as powder metallurgy process (powder production and powder blending and powder compaction and powder sintering and powder finishing), powder production methods (mechanical methods and chemical methods and physical methods), powder characteristics (particle size and size distribution and particle shape and morphology and particle surface area and porosity), powder compaction methods (uniaxial pressing and isostatic pressing and rolling and extrusion), powder sintering methods (solid state sintering and liquid phase sintering and activated sintering), powder finishing methods (sizing and coining and machining and grinding and infiltration and impregnation), advantages and disadvantages of powder metallurgy, applications of powder metallurgy products.
```html and surface modification and surface characterization), surface cleaning methods (mechanical methods and chemical methods and physical methods), surface modification methods (coating methods and treatment methods), coating methods (electroplating and electroless plating and chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition and thermal spraying), treatment methods (carburizing and nitriding and carbonitriding and cyaniding and shot peening and surface hardening), surface characterization methods (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction), advantages and disadvantages of surface engineering, applications of surface engineering products.
In this article, we have given you an overview of the book Physical Metallurgy by Vijendra Singh. This book is a comprehensive and updated book on physical metallurgy that covers a wide range of topics, such as atomic structure and bonding, crystal structure and defects, phase diagrams, solidification, diffusion, mechanical properties and testing, phase transformations and heat treatment, alloy systems, powder metallurgy, and surface engineering. The book also features numerous examples, problems, diagrams, tables, charts, and references to help the readers to grasp the concepts easily.
The benefits of reading this book are:
You will learn the basic principles and applications of physical metallurgy in a clear and concise manner.
You will understand the structure and properties of metals and alloys and how to manipulate them by various processes.
You will be able to solve the problems related to physical metallurgy using the concepts and formulas given in the book.
You will be able to prepare for your exams and interviews on physical metallurgy with confidence.
If you are interested in reading this book, you can buy it from online or offline stores, or you can download the pdf version for free from various websites. Here are some links to download the pdf version for free:
Physical Metallurgy - Prof. Vijendra Singh - Google Books
Download Physical Metallurgy By Vijendra Singh Free Book PDF.
Physical Metallurgy Notes PDF - Scribd
physical metallurgy notes.pdf - Google Drive