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Action Man Gay

For over 50 years the G.I. Joe line of action figures has been one of the most successful and inventive toy products in history. Created by Hasbro in 1964, the original G.I. (Government Issue) Joe release included 12-inch figures representing the three branches of the U.S. Armed Forces along with the marines. There was "Action Soldier" (U.S. Army), "Action Sailor" (U.S. Navy), "Action Pilot" (Air Force), and "Action Marine" (Marine Corps). They had no names, enemy or instructions but became a huge success amongst young children, particularly boys. The success of Joe's took a hit during the Vietnam War with the action figure straying away from war themes and marketed as an adventurer. G.I. Joe's popularity steadily declined during the 70s until the toy was relaunched as smaller 3.75-inch action figures in 1982. Incorporating a team of Joe's with their own colorful personalities and background stories and a big bad in the form of terrorist network Cobra, these figures helped revive the failing toy line. A comic book series by Marvel and an animated television series were released in conjunction with the new figures and helped G.I. Joe reclaim its place as one of the most revered and best selling toys of all time.

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G.I. Joe action figures have been the source of pleasure for many young children (myself included) but like any successful product, there are some unsavory things about G.I. Joe's history you might not be aware of. There have been many dark secrets Hasbro and the like has tried to hide from the public so we've done some digging and found 25 you might not be aware of.

While the idea for G.I Joe's was fantastic, Hasbro wasn't too sure how to go about marketing the toy line. They had essentially created a male version of Barbie and while they had no doubt it would sell, Hasbro understood the marketing of the toy would be key to its success. There is no way they could sell the toy as a doll, as this would automatically turn off almost every young boy in the country. You have to remember this was the 60s when men and women had their defined roles and had to stick to them. After much brain storming, they came up with the term "action figure." This became the term to describe all similar figurines produced over the years, with Hasbro trademarking the phrase, "America's movable fighting man," and displaying it on the packaging.

It's hard to fathom in the current era but when Hasbro began selling G.I. Joe's in the 60s they released a line of action figures with a racial prefix. A year after the successful release of the first four Joe's in 1964, Hasbro released a black figure to market at African Americans.

It didn't look like much effort had been put into replicating African Americans and the figure was quite offensive looking. Despite the name, these Joes were a hit and as the company developed better models they did the same for this line of Joe, with facial improvements to make them stop looking like a white Joe turned black. It wasn't until 1969 that the prefix was dropped and all action figures were referred to as G.I. Joe's, no matter their race or gender.

The toy line officially became known as "The Adventures of G.I. Joe," with civilian action figures created with no ties to the war. These figures featured more realistic elements such as hair and beards and included attributes such as "Kung-Fu Grip." The figures included the likes of "Talking Adventure Team Commander," "Land Adventurer," "Sea Adventurer," and "Air Adventurer," and continued Hasbro's strangle hold on the action figure genre of toys.

Throughout the 70s, G.I. Joe figures remained a big seller for Hasbro as they began incorporating new initiatives. The first Joe to be given a name, "Mike Power - Atomic Man," was released as well as a line of intergalactic Joe's who adventured into space. When 1980 hit, Hasbro decided they needed to freshen up the toy line and decided to bring back the original idea of G.I. Joe as wartime heroes, although this time they created specialist characters who worked as a team instead of individuals. The main difference between these figures and the ones they were making was the size. Hasbro ditched the 12-inch figures for a line of 3.75-inch action figures. Cost-effectiveness and the popularity of other toys (I.E. Star Wars figures) helped change the size of these iconic toys.

It's hard to believe but Sylvester Stallone's most iconic character, Rocky Balboa, was almost a G.I. Joe. Stallone was fresh from the success of Rocky IV, in 1985, where Rocky defeated Ivan Drago and single handily put an end to the Cold War. Hasbro wanted to cash in on the success of Rocky and was set to create a Rocky figure and have him become part of the comic book series. G.I. Joe: Order of Battle#2, released in 1986, contained many Joe character bios, including one for Rocky Balboa who was listed as a personal combat instructor. Mock sketches of Rocky were made as well as a wax head but it wasn't to be. Rival toy company Coleco began creating action figures and vehicles based on Stallone's other successful franchise, Rambo, and offered the Italian Stallion more money to sign over the Rocky property to them.

Hasbro's head of Boy's Toys, Bob Prupis, had spent almost three years trying to bring back the original war-themed G.I. Joe action figures. Having presented the smaller figures with new backstories he had one last problem, convincing the executives they would sell. Given one last chance to present a commercial idea, Prupis managed to get Marvel on board to create a comic book series that would be used to showcase all the new G.I. Joe toys they had coming out.

He created all new characters with mini-profiles as well as being responsible for Cobra, the Joe's main adversary. Presenting his new range of figures alongside the comic to Hasbro executives, Prupis was given the green light to release his new version of Joe's. The new range of action figures was predicted to sell between $12 - $15 million worth of toys in the first year but ended up making Hasbro over $50 million.

As you can see from the pictures above one version of the character is named Cobra Invasor and has a larger silver Cobra logo on his chest. In another, he is called Mortal Invasor and has a silver helmet as well as a silver Cobra logo on his chest. The third version of the action figure comes from Argentina where he goes by the name Cobra Mortal and sports a red and silver costume.

It didn't take long for the first G.I. Joe action figures to become massively popular in America after launching in 1963. Kids across the country couldn't wait to get their hands on these new toys and the news soon filtered overseas to the UK about these action figures for boys. British toy company Palitoy were the first to act, getting in touch with Hasbro and acquiring the license for G.I. Joe's in Britain. The only problem was most UK citizens weren't overly familiar with the term G.I., so they renamed the figures, Action Man. The first incarnation were similar to the army themed Joe's but as the years went on Action Man became more British. While maintaining the army theme, Action Man was soon linked to adventuring and exploring to help distinguish him from his American cousin. Action Man took a brief hiatus when Palitoy shut down in 1984 before being revived during the Gulf War in the early 90s.

270 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY to have rehabilitated the Middle Ages, unless Voltaire is reading "Tintern Abbey" as an exultation upon a cathedral, "Christabel" and "La Belle Dame sans Merci" upon flowering knighthood, and "The Ancient Mariner" upon touching faith. Yet, from another point of view Voltaire is correct: the Romantics fled from the Enlightenment. Worship, wonder, the limitless aspects of the self, a sensation of having approached the inscrutable and infinite and rediscovered a Nature that was vital yet still mysterious dominate a large measure of Romantic poetry. But the Romantics do not glorify the accoutrements of the age, as did the Victorians, so much as the sensibility that is awake to a close yet ineffable harmony between nature and man. Gay, by letting many of Voltaire's statements go unchallenged, or when answered by Erasmus done so poorly, does not do justice to Romanticism. If The Bridge ol Criticism expels many critical shibboleths, it does so only by perpetuating others. "Opposition," said Blake, "is true friendship." Though none of the protagonists voices that sentiment, yet we feel it deeply as we hear them carrying on their conversations . It is a tribute to Gay's book that though we may sense the irreconcilability of ideas and their proponents, we are led to believe in their ultimate congeniality. How good it is to hear intelligent men speaking intelligently. The book concludes with "On Existentialism." Though Voltaire, in Lucian's words, has insisted contrary to traditional belief that the Enlightenment was "a revolt against rationalism, insisted that it gave room to the passions, and showed that it was not particularly optimistic," still the ultimate difference between the eighteenth-century and modernity was Voltaire's "liberalism." What the modern may no longer accept, Voltaire maintained staunchly: "that it is possible to improve man's lot by man's intelligent action." Still Voltaire maintains that "if our [the philosophes'] method should fail--that critical method, which, as I said, is more than a method----everything else must fail as well, and more drastically." "The bridge of unbelief?" Erasmus asks rhetorically: "It will only lead men to hell--if it holds." Always with the last word, Voltaire replies, "I dare not hope, just as you, Erasmus, need not fear. We must act as if it will hold--I know. But what bridge, built by reason, has ever held before?" In his own querying skepticism and tentative hope Voltaire appears at this moment close to the modern sensibility, which is so often made dismal by its final conviction, almost aroused to a faith, that nothing, not even reason, remains certain. Ricnx F^OEM Die Struktur der Gotteserkenntnis: Studien zur Philosophic Christian Wolffs. By Anton Bissinger. Abhandlungen zur Philosophie, Psychologie und Pidagogik, Band 63. (Bonn: H. Bouvier u. Co. Verlag, 1970. Pp. xviiiq-342. Paper, DM 48) Anton Bissinger's book Die Struktur der Gotteserkenntnis: Studien zur Philosophic Christian Wolffs is a splendid contribution towards the formation of a contemporary assessment of the historical and doctrinal significance of the philosophy of Christian Wolff. Although the main title may seem to be excessively general, the subtitle provides the necessary specification. Bissinger argues that structure can only be rightly understood in its concrete instantiation or in its inner unity with a particular theoretical content. The choice of Wolff's philosophy to serve this purpose is suggested by Wolff's special prominence in connection with the concept of natural theology and by our relative lack of understanding of his thought. The very fact that Wolff has not directly faced some questions which later thinkers posed concerning human knowledge of BOOK REVIEWS 271 transcendence may help to place them in a new light. In this way, consideration of Wolff's thought may yield results for larger issues of enduring significance. Bissinger seems to feel that the present state of research on Wolff will only support studies of the type represented by his book. Perhaps, however, the appearance of this volume--as well as the publication of a new edition of Wolff's works which stimulated and in part made possible this sort of investigation--will bring us closer to the point of a more comprehensive and definitive analysis of Wolff... 041b061a72

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